quiz psy104

1.Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of an adolescent’s “personal fable”?

A SENSE OF UNIQUENESS AND SPECIALNESS

THE VIEW THAT HE IS NOT THE FOCUS OF ANYONE’S ATTENTION EXAGGERATED FEELINGS OF SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS THE VIEW THAT HE IS CONTROLLED BY HIS OWN DEVICES

2. Lev Vygotsky viewed cognitive growth as a continuous process mostly dependent on a child’s

STAGES OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT.

GENETIC AND INHERITED TENDENCIES. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL INFLUENCES. USE OF LOGIC AND ABSTRACTION.

3. What is one of the pitfalls of scaffolding?

CHILDREN WHO KNOW MORE THAN THEIR MKO

ADULTS WHO REFUSE TO HELP A CHILD LEARN ADULTS WHO STUNT COGNITIVE GROWTH BY HELPING TOO MUCH MENTORS WHO CRITICIZE AND DEMORALIZE THEIR MENTEES

4. Unlike Vygotsky, Piaget would say that cognitive development is most dependent on the factor of__________.

READINESS

CUSTOMS VALUES SOCIAL INTERACTION

5.ALL OF THE FOLLOWING ADJECTIVES DESCRIBE PIAGET’S STAGE THEORY OF COGNITIVE GROWTH EXCEPT __________.

discontinuous

random

universal

sequential

6.The author cites how __________ have drastically changed learning and problem solving processes for children.

levels of income

screen technologies

experiences in travel

drug and alcohol use

7. Which of the following behaviors does NOT characteristically appear during Piaget’s formal stage?

Abstract reasoning

Deductive reasoning

Hypothetical thinking

Symbolic representation

8. During the first two substages of the Piaget’s sensorimotor stage,

an infant’s reflexes become voluntary movements.

infants exhibit only involuntary responses to stimuli.

infants understand how to search for hidden objects.

an infant’s goals become intentional and outer-directed.

9. Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development—which lasts from birth to about age two—is known as the ___________ stage.

involuntary

preoperational

sensorimotor

reflexive

10. Baby girl Sara drops food from her high chair and watches it fall and land. Piaget would say Sara is

organizing experiences.

waiting for consequences.

trying to gain positive attention.

emotionally immature.

11. With age, very early childhood memories become __________.

clearer

false

unreliable

symbolic

12.The expression short-term memory is now more commonly referred to as

mid-term memory.

sensory memory.

working memory.

temporary memory.

13. Which of the following is NOT an executive function of cognition?

Sensory processing

Cognitive flexibility

Response inhibition

Self-regulation

14. In the information-processing approach, a(n) __________ best illustrates the connection between various memories and responses.

hierarchy pyramid

feedback loop

web-like structure

outline

15. What term most closely means “thinking about thinking”?

Cognitive flexibility

Response inhibition

Self-regulation

Metacognition

16.The Meltzoff studies with newborns and infants suggest that imitation is how infants first

store memories.

bond with parents.

understand their own needs.

begin to use language.

17. What was the conclusion of the study that tested chess piece memory among 10- and 11-year-old chess players and non-chess-playing college students?

Older age facilitates memory.

Experience facilitates memory.

Youth facilitates memory.

Imagination facilitates memory.

18. Information-processing theory differs from Piaget’s stage theory in that information-processing theory holds that

cognitive capacity is somewhat predetermined at birth.

cognitive capacity is based on smooth, quantitative growth.

cognitive capacity is restricted by certain physical limits.

cognitive capacity is restricted by certain mental limits.

19. How many pieces of information can be consciously held in a typical person’s short-term memory system?

1-5

5-9

10-12

13-15

20. Which of the following scenarios is the best example of selective attention?

When Julian is in his family’s summer cottage, he hears every noise.

When Julian watches a movie, he can focus on it completely.

When Julian wrestles competitively, he blocks out the crowd’s noises.

When Julian attends Dr. Friedman’s lectures, he listens, mesmerized.

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