Prior to beginning work on this interactive assignment, it is recommended that you review the recommended resources for this week as they will assist you in the creation of an effective presentation of your Research Design.
This interactive assignment will provide you with an opportunity to create a dynamic presentation of some of the materials you are creating for your Research Proposal. This type of presentation would be used in the professional world to request Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and potentially elicit funding, for your research.
In your presentation, summarize the main points and ideas for your Reseach Design. Over the course of the week, you will have the opportunity to share feedback and suggestions with your classmates and instructor, which may assist you in improving your research proposal before submitting the Research Proposal.
For this interactive assignment, create a presentation file using PowerPoint and then create a three- to five-minute screencast video of your presentation with pertinent audio that includes important points about the content of each slide. In order to make sure your video remains within the 3-5 minute time requirement, create a script for your screencast video. You must attach your script to your initial post. It is recommended you rehearse your presentation using your script to ensure that you are within the time limit and that all pertinent information is presented in a manner that is easy to understand. You may use any screencasting software of your choice (e.g., Screencast-O-Matic, Jing, etc.). A quick-start guide is available for Screencast-O-Matic for your convenience.
The content of the presentation must include the following:
- A brief introduction
- Devise a specific research question related to the topic you chose in Week One.
- Explain the importance of the topic and research question.
- A brief literature review
- Evaluate published research studies on your topic found during your work on the Weeks One, Two, and Four assignments and identify two relevant published studies.
- A description of potential methods
- Based on what you have learned about research design options and requirements in this course, create an appropriate research approach and design to investigate your research question.
- Provide a rationale for your design choices.
- A discussion on ethical issues
- Apply ethical standards to the proposed research and identify potential ethical issues that would apply. Explain how you plan to address these issues.
- A conclusion
- Summarize the main points of the presentation and reiterate why the proposed research is important and why it should be carried out.
In your initial discussion post, introduce your presentation and provide a link to the screencast URL.
Be sure to attach your PowerPoint presentation and script documents to your initial post.
Week Six Lecture
There are two different categories of statistics. There are descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics are the description of data. There are ways to categorize numeric information. This includes nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Nominal organization of data includes the numbers or names of members of the category such as male and female. Ordinal level of measurement is a ranking or order of objects. Interval data means that there are successive numbers on a scale of equal units but the scale zero point is arbitrary. Ratio data means that there are units but the zero point indicates an absence of whatever the scale measures will. The Fahrenheit temperature scale is an example of an interval scale. The scale of measuring inches with a real zero point is an example of a ratio scale.
A frequency distribution is a way to bring order to a dataset. Typically, datasets are organized from lowest to highest value. The researcher can use quartiles to break the data up into four different sections. It is interesting to note the shape of a frequency distribution and if any areas are skewed in one direction or another. Measures of central tendency are commonly used in descriptive statistics. The mean is the numeric average of the data set. The mode is the score or measure that occurs most often. And the median is the point at which half of the scores lie below and fly above. The mean, median, mode, range, and standard deviation are often listed in tables of descriptive statistics.
Inferential statistics give us the ability to infer the characteristics of the population from a research sample. Inferential statistics afford us the opportunity to determine whether or not the results of an experiment occurred by chance. For example, using and inferential statistics a researcher can determine that there is a 95% chance the results did not occur by error. There are many different types of inferential statistics there are many different types of inferential statistics. There are many different types of inferential statistics. There are one and two tailed t-tests, analysis of variance, regression analysis, multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, multivariate methods like factor analysis, and discriminant function analysis.
Remember that in statistics you have a null and an alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis is that there is no relationship between the variables and the alternative hypothesis is that there is an affect or relationship between the variables. Inferential statistics poses the possibility of what is called a type I and type II error. A type I error is also known as a false positive. A type I error is the rejection of a null hypothesis when it is actually true. A type II error is known as a false negative. A type II error is not rejecting a null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is the true state. It is important to understand type I and type II errors in research because it has to do with hypothesis testing. Multiple hypothesis testing will result in a potential increase in type I errors when statistical tests are used repeatedly. However, there are methods such as the Bonferroni correction to address this. Take some time to explore online some of the various descriptive and inferential statistics that researchers are able to use to analyze their data. Remember that correlation does not mean causation. Just because two variables are related doesn’t always mean that one caused the other. Think about what are some pros and cons of the different statistics and why they should or should not be used for a particular experimental design.
Krathwohl, D. (2009). Methods of educational and social science research. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.