Children in early childhood (ages 2–6 years) begin to develop a self-concept — awareness of the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is. Self-esteem — judgments about one’s own worth — also emerges in early childhood, and children gain in emotional understanding, emotional self-regulation, and the capacity to experience self-conscious emotions and empathy. During this period of time, parents are a big influence on their child’s development.
- Describe ways that parenting contributes to a) self-concept, b) self-esteem, c) emotional understanding, d) emotional self-regulation, e) self-conscious emotions, and f) empathy and sympathy for children in early childhood (ages 2–6 years). Do you see any patterns in parenting styles that are associated with positive development of each of the listed concepts?
- Describe the impact of child-rearing styles on development, by considering the four main child rearing styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and uninvolved. Which of these child-rearing styles is associated with positive outcomes? What factors can influence an individual’s approach to parenting?