A four-year-old pregnant French bull dog presents to the veterinary hospital 10 hours after the onset of labour

1. A four-year-old pregnant French bull dog presents to the veterinary hospital 10 hours
after the onset of labour. An emergency caesarean is performed in an attempt to save
the puppies.
Answer both parts of this question:
a) List the physiological changes associated with pregnancy and the anaesthetic
considerations for this bitch. (10 marks)
b) Outline your perioperative anaesthetic plan for this animal and justify your
choices. (20 marks)
2. A two-year-old male neutered domestic short hair cat has presented with a simple
femoral fracture and no other injuries. The cat is undergoing an orthopaedic procedure
and an epidural is performed. Inadvertently, some bupivacaine was administered
intravenously (IV).
Answer all parts of this question:
a) Describe the anatomical approach when performing an epidural in this cat, and
the techniques available to ascertain whether the needle is in the epidural space.
(8 marks)
b) Discuss the contraindications to performing an epidural in small animals.
(7 marks)
c) List the clinical signs of bupivacaine toxicity and explain why bupivacaine
appears to be more toxic than the other local anaesthetic agents. (15 marks)
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Veterinary Anaesthesia and Critical Care Paper 2 Page 3 of 3
© 2016 The Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists ABN 00 50 000894 208
3. A healthy three-year-old, 600 kg bull, presents to the large animal department for
removal of a large mass on its prepuce. General anaesthesia is not an option.
Describe in detail two (2) local anaesthetic techniques (excluding a ring block) that
could be used to facilitate surgical removal of the mass. Include in your answer the
anatomical landmarks relevant to the local anaesthetic block, drugs and doses you
would use, and the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques.
(15 marks for each block / 30 marks total)
4. Describe in detail the risks associated with tracheal intubation, and how they can be
avoided, with a focus on cats, pigs and horses. Include in your answer a list of the
indications for endotracheal intubation and the different approaches to placement of a
tube in the trachea. (30 marks)
5. Describe in detail the techniques that can be used to monitor the depth of anaesthesia
in animals. Include in your answer a definition of anaesthesia and a brief discussion
on the purpose of monitoring during anaesthesia. (30 marks)
6. There has been recent debate about the risks associated with human use and/or abuse
of the drug ketamine. As a consequence there has been a campaign to reschedule this
drug as it is considered by some to be of ‘no medical use’.
Create an argument both for and against the rescheduling of ketamine whereby the
result, if it was rescheduled, would be that ketamine was no longer available for
veterinary use. Include in your answer, comments on the potential misuse of the drug
and some examples of situations where it would be difficult to substitute other drugs
for ketamine in the practice of veterinary anaesthesia. (30 marks)


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