Relation and Implications of Genetic and Genome Studies to Oncology Nursing.
Has to have all of this! 1. Clearly state topic with brief explanation as to why it is important to focus on this area of study 2. Documentation and incorporation of findings from the literature (what the literature says and what other people think). Use 9 or more references- sources have to be credible. 3. Sensitivity to the multiple dimensions of a topic: governmental, ethical, professional, institutional (breadth). 4. Capacity to look beyond the surface of a topic (depth). 5. Ability to articulate your personal opinion, draw conclusions, and identify where further research or investigation is necessary. (Please see uploaded file for example of paper)
Universal Health Care System, Case For and Against
One of the issues that were strongly discussed during the recent national health care
debate were the pros and cons of universal health care and whether it can be delivered in the
United States without a fundamental change to the prevailing system. Conceptually, universal
health care can be viewed as the delivery of basic health care coverage to all individuals who
meet the minimum legal residency requirement. Its delivery can be totally governmental at
one end of the spectrum or entirely private at the other end of the spectrum, or more
commonly, a hybrid of government and private insurance companies.
Historically, through the health insurance bill of 1883, Germany became the first
nation to have some form of universal health coverage for its citizens, and currently covers
99.8% of its legal residents. Funding is mostly public and it provides universal basic health
care coverage, but allows individuals to purchase supplemental plans which could deliver
additional coverage. Premiums are capped and government provides subsidies for low
income workers (Shafrin, 2008). In United Kingdom, the government is heavily involved in
health care delivery through the National Health Services (NHS) enacted in 1948. Funding is
entirely public and coverage is extended to all legal residents (Godber, 1988). The Canadian
system is a form of single payer universal health care whereby the government is the
administrator and the payee while private companies deliver the care. Unlike the British
system, funding is public and private, with the public part of funding being shared by the
federal government and the individual provinces. Hospitals and providers are private entities
and they bill the government, the single payer, for their services (Steinbrook, 2006).
Switzerland and Netherlands are other countries with universal health care system
which covers about 99% of their legal residents. Private insurance companies deliver
coverage to individuals, either through a national exchange as in Netherlands or through
decentralized private companies as in Switzerland. Coverage is without regards to age or
pre-existing medical conditions, and in turn all citizens are mandated to purchase health care.
Even though individuals are entirely responsible for their premiums, government provides
subsidies for low income workers and poor people (Leu, Rutten, Brouwer, Matter, &
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