Describe how the resting membrane potential is established and maintained in neurons and muscle cells.

Subject: Biology    / General Biology

EXCITABLE TISSUES (Chapter 10, 12)

1. Identify the excitable tissue.

2. Describe the distribution of substances between the inside and outside of a neuron.

a. Calcium

b. Chloride

c. Sodium

d. Potassium

3. Define resting membrane potential and state its typical value for muscle cells and neurons.

4. Describe how the resting membrane potential is established and maintained in neurons and muscle cells. Know the roles of

a. Na+

b. K+

c. Cl-

d. A- (large anions)

5. Distinguish between a pump and a channel; identify the pumps and channels located along excitable tissue cell membranes and describe their roles:

a. Leakage

b. Ligand (chemical) gated

c. Mechanical gated

d. Voltage gated

e. Na+/K+ pump

6. Explain how neurons generate a graded potential; understand the properties of a graded potential:

a. Graded

b. Decremental

c. Reversible

d. Excitatory or inhibitory

7. Explain how neurons generate an action potential; understand the roles of:

a. Na+

b. K+

c. Ligand-gated Na+ gates

d. Voltage-gated Na+ gates

e. Voltage-gated K+ gates

8. Understand the characteristics of action potentials

a. All-or-none

b. Nondecremental

c. Irreversible

d. Go in one direction only

9. Explain how the resting potential is reestablished after an action potential.

10. Explain the following states or events of a neuron:

a. Membrane potential

b. Resting potential

c. Threshold potential

d. Depolarization

e. Repolarization

f. Hyperpolarization

MUSCLE TISSUE (Chapter 10)

11. Know the types of tissue that compose a muscle

12. Understand the anatomy of a muscle (from big to small, organ to filaments), including all the connective tissue layers

13. Describe the anatomy of a single muscle cell (fiber), including the following structures (and the function of each):

a. Sarcolemma

b. Sarcoplasm

c. Myoglobin

d. Glycogen granules

e. Nuclei (many)

f. Mitochondria (many)

g. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

h. T-tubules

i. Terminal cisternae

j. Triad

k. Myofibrils

l. Thick filaments

m. Thin filaments

14. Where do striations come from?

15. Explain the structure of thick and thin filaments (including tropomyosin and troponin), and how they are arranged into a sarcomere

16. What is a sarcomere? Why is it significant? Know the difference between a contracted and relaxed sarcomere. Make sure to include:

a. A band

b. I band

c. H zone

d. Z disc

e. M line

f. Thick filaments

g. Thin filaments

17. Explain how the thin filament components respond to calcium:

a. Troponin

b. Tropomyosin

c. Myosin binding sites on actin

18. Describe in detail the sliding filament theory, including the signals to start and stop contraction

19. Define motor unit and describe size/distribution differences.

20. Know the anatomy of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), including the role of each in excitation of a skeletal muscle fiber:

a. Axon end bulb of motor neuron

b. Voltage-gated calcium channels

c. Acetylcholine (ACh)

d. Vesicles filled with ACh

e. Synapse or synaptic cleft

f. Motor end plate

g. Ligand-gated ACh receptors

h. Sarcolemma

i. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)

21. Describe in detail the process of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, including all relevant structures, ions, and charges/potentials

22. What happens when we alter the chemistry at the NMJ? For example, curare, botulinum toxin. Relate this concept to myasthenia gravis.

23. Understand the pathology of muscular dystrophy and myasthenia gravis

24. Define oxygen debt and describe why it occurs

25. Know the difference between isotonic (eccentric & concentric) contractions and isometric contractions; give examples of each

26. Describe what occurs in a muscle during single twitch and the different phases that make up the twitch (latent, contraction, relaxation); you should know what is happening at the molecular level during each phase of the twitch

27. Explain the concept of motor unit recruitment and why it’s important

28. Distinguish between treppe, wave summation, incomplete tetany and tetany that occur with increased frequency of stimulation

29. Define muscle tone and explain why it’s important

30. Know the three sources of ATP for muscle contraction, how each occurs, the advantages of each, and when each is used:

a. Phosphagens

b. Anaerobic glycolysis

c. Aerobic respiration

31. Understand what determines the optimal length for a muscle and how other lengths can affect overall contraction strength (tension) (Length-tension relationship)

32. What is physiological muscle fatigue and why does it occur?

33. Know how slow and fast-twitch muscle fibers differ in their anatomy and physiology

34. Compare and contrast the changes in muscle that occur as a result of

a. Aging

b. Exercise

c. Lack of exercise

35. List and describe similarities and differences between skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle

36. Know the anatomy of smooth muscle and how it differs from skeletal muscle

37. Know where smooth muscle is commonly found in the body

38. Know how contraction occurs in smooth muscle

a. Where does calcium come from for smooth muscle contraction?

b. How does calcium signal smooth muscle contraction at the molecular level?

c. How does calcium interact with myosin?

d. What is calmodulin?

e. How does calmodulin binding calcium result in cross-bridge attachment?

39. Explain how the contraction process is controlled for smooth muscle

a. How is smooth muscle innervated?

b. How are single-unit and multi-unit smooth muscle different

i. Location

ii. Regulation


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